ARRIVAL, APPROACH AND LANDING
ATC should issue holding instructions at least 5 minutes before
reaching a clearance limit fix. (I/103)
PARALLEL - If a/c heading is within 70°of the inbound course, turn
out-bound in the direction of holding. If not within 70°, turn
outbound in the shorter direction. If the turn places you on the
non-holding side, either parallel (adjust for wind) or attempt to
intercept the holding course outbound then turn toward the holding side
and proceed direct or intercept the holding course to the fix.
TEARDROP - Not to exceed 45° from the outbound course.
Technique for "conveniently aligned"- teardrop course is within top
When within 3 mins. of holding fix, reduce airspeed. (I/103)
Normal Speeds -GW. > 257,500# - 220 KCAS
GW. < 257,500# -200 KCAS (D/2-67)
If at the max. endurance alt. hold at best endurance speed +10
maximum endurance - fuel flow is at its minimum at optimum altitude
and max. endurance airspeed.
best endurance - fuel flow is at its minimum at a specific or
assigned altitude. (P/6-2)
To determine endurance airspeeds/altitudes, see P/6-3. (Fig.
If above the max. endurance altitude, hold at best endurance
airspeed + 10 knots or stall speed at 30° bank + 25 knots, whichever is
If you are below the max endurance altitude, hold at 200/220 knots,
When fuel is not a factor, low altitude holding may be conducted
with the gear down and flaps APPROACH at approach speed +30 knots.
A. How long: (max INBOUND leg)
Above 14,000' MSL - 1 1/2 min.
At or below 14,000' MSL - 1 min.
B. When to begin timing:
Inbound - wings level inbound.
Outbound - when over or abeam the fix. If you cannot
determine abeam, then wings level outbound.
TACAN - no timing; start turns no later than specified DME.
When you receive a clearance specifying the time to depart a
holding pattern, adjust the pattern within the limits of the
established holding procedure so as to depart at the time specified.
You may shorten the pattern anytime ATC requires it, however, never
lengthen beyond the specified time or distance.
You are considered to be in the holding pattern at the time of
initial station passage of the holding fix. (I/103)
Standard = right turn. (I/102)
Max. holding a/s - 230 KIAS (GP/5-6)
Climb - normal climb a/s (310 KIAS max). (GP/5-6)
To descend - descend at holding airspeed. If established in a
holding pattern that has a published minimum holding altitude, you may
descend to that altitude when cleared for the approach. (I/106)
You are expected to adjust for wind whenever in holding. (Including
the entry.) (I/105)
On the initial outbound leg, do not exceed the appropriate time for
the altitude unless compensating for a known wind. Adjust
subsequent legs as necessary so as not to exceed the maximum inbound
time. You may shorten the pattern anytime ATC requires it;
however, never lengthen beyond the specified time or distance.
In extreme wind conditions, the inbound leg may exceed the 1 or 1
1/2 min. limit. In this case, you are authorized to exceed the time
limit inbound. (I/104)
If you are established in a holding pattern that has a published
minimum holding altitude & are assigned an alt. above that published
altitude, you may descend to the published minimum holding altitude when
you are cleared for the approach, unless otherwise instructed by the
controlling agency. (I/106)
For those holding patterns where there are no published minimum
holding altitudes, upon receiving an approach clearance, you must
maintain the last assigned altitude until established on a segment of
the instrument approach procedure being flown. (If a lower
altitude is desired, request clearance.) (I/106)
It is always advantageous to conduct holding as close to cruise
altitude as possible. After the holding operation has been completed, it
will reduce the fuel required to return to cruise speed and
When a decision is to be made regarding whether or not to descend,
the fuel required to descend, hold, and climb back to cruise altitude
must be considered in order to reduce the fuel consumed to a minimum for
the overall holding operation. (P/6-1)
When no delay is expected, the controller should issue a clearance
beyond the fix ASAP, and at least 5 min. before the a/c reaches the
clearance limit. (I/103)
When the a/c is 3 min. or less from a clearance limit, and a
clearance beyond the limit has not been received, the pilot is expected
to start a speed reduction in order to cross the fix at or below the
maximum holding speed. (I/103)