Except for radar finals, request an enroute descent to a specific
ATC will not insist on an enroute descent.
ATC will not authorize an enroute descent if abnormal delays are
anticipated, nor will they terminate it without the pilot's consent,
except in an emergency. (I/107)
Fly .74 or .767 M to 300 KCAS down to 10,000', unless
restricted by ATC. (D/2-66)
Maintain 250 KCAS below 10,000'. (D/2-66)
Remain oriented. (I/107)
Have a back-up procedure. (I/107)
Note the minimum safe/sector/emerg. safe alt. (I/107)
Once cleared for the approach, maintain the last assigned altitude
and heading until established on a segment of the published routing or
If radar contact is lost while in IFR conditions and there is a
delay in receiving new instructions, ask the controller for a new
clearance or advise the controller of your intentions. (I/107)
If you experience lost comm., you are automatically
cleared to fly any published approach.
If your initial ATC clearance clears you for the flight planned
route, you are also cleared for the STAR procedure.
Altitudes associated with STAR routings should be treated as
Repeat all headings, altitudes (departing and assigned), and all
Note minimum safe/sector/emergency safe altitudes.
Maintain the last assigned altitude and heading until established on
a segment of a published routing or IAP.
Radar controllers use minimum vectoring altitude (MVA) charts. Minimum
altitudes are established at 1000' (or 2000' in mountainous areas). In
mountainous areas, MVA's may be authorized at 1000'.
MVA's may be lower than the non-radar MEA's/MOCA's. They may also be
below emerg. safe, minimum safe, or sector altitudes. However, when being
radar vectored, IFR altitude assignments will be at or above MVA.
WARNING: Traffic advisories on a PAR are almost nil. Radar monitoring
during a non-precision approach will NOT provide altitude warning
information if the aircraft descends below a safe altitude.
CAUTION: If at any time there is doubt as to obstacle clearance or
controller instructions, query the controller. (I/112)
QNH: Set QNH when descending through and operating below the
QNE (29.92): Set QNE when operating at, climbing through, or
operating above the transition altitude.
QFE: This setting is the actual surface pressure and is not
corrected to sea level.
The QNH altimeter setting results in the altimeter indicating height
above mean sea level (MSL), while QFE results in the altimeter indicating
height above field elevation
ENROUTE TO THE IAF:
If holding is not required, reduce to the penetration airspeed or
below before reaching the IAF. (I/107)
If cleared for an approach while enroute to a holding fix which is not
collocated with the IAF, you are expected to proceed to the IAF via the
holding fix unless specifically cleared to proceed direct to the IAF.
However, if the IAF is located along the route of flight to the holding
fix, you are expected to begin the approach at the IAF. (I/107)
When ATC issues an approach clearance, you are expected to proceed to
the IAF, then turn immediately in the shortest direction to intercept the
approach course. If your heading is within 90° of the approach course, you
may use normal lead points to intercept the course. If not within 90° and
you desire to maneuver the aircraft to a more favorable alignment
position, obtain clearance from ATC. (I/107-109)
*If established in holding & cleared for the approach, complete
the holding pattern to the IAF unless an early turn is approved by ATC.
ATC will usually issue clearance for a specific type of approach. The
omission of a specific type of approach in the clearance indicates that
any published instrument approach to the aerodrome may be used.
(Fly the entire approach, starting at the IAF). (I/114)
NON-DME TEARDROP APPROACHES (I/114)
ENTRY: When station passage occurs at the IAF - turn immediately in
the shorter direction to the outbound course and attempt to intercept
DESCENT: When outbound from the IAF and on a parallel or intercept
heading to the outbound course.
if you arrive at the IAF at an altitude above that
published, a descent to the IAF altitude should be accomplished prior
to starting the approach.
if you arrive at an alt. below that published, maintain
altitude and proceed outbound 15 sec. for each 1000' the a/c is below
the published altitude before starting the descent.
Perform penetration turn as published. When a penetration turn
altitude is not published, start the turn after descending one-half the
total altitude between the IAF and FAF altitude. One technique to
determine the start turn altitude is to add the IAF and FAF altitude and
divide by two.
If a penetration turn completion altitude is depicted, do not descend
below this altitude until you are established on the inbound segment of
the published approach procedure.
RADIAL APPROACHES (I/114)
ENTRY: When over the IAF - turn in the shorter direction toward the
approach course (if heading is within 90° of the approach course, you are
not required to over-fly the IAF).
DESCENT: Begin when abeam or past the IAF on a parallel or intercept
heading to the approach course. (For DME approaches, crossing the arc is
considered abeam the IAF.)
RADIAL AND ARC COMBINATION APPROACHES (I/114)
ENTRY: Same as for radial approaches. However, if established in
holding and the IAF is located on an arc or radial at a distance less than
that required for a normal lead point, you may turn early to
intercept the arc.
DESCENT: When abeam or past the IAF and est. on an intercept to the
An arc or radial altitude restriction only applies while established
on that segment of the approach to which the alt. restriction applies.
Once a lead point is reached and a turn to the next segment is
initiated, the pilot may descend to the next altitude
NOTE: When an altitude restriction is depicted at a fix defined as
an intersection of a radial and an arc, the restriction must be complied
with NO LATER THAN the completion of the lead turn associated with that
fix. If the restriction is met during the lead turn, consider yourself
established on the next segment and continue to descend to the next