LOW ALTITUDE APPROACHES
ENTRY: Determine the direction of turn in the same
manner as for holding pattern entry. If heading within 90° of the
outbound course, you may use normal lead points. (max a/s- 250 KIAS
Outbound abeam/after completing the outbound turn.
Passing the FAF.
Outbound - outbound abeam/after completing the turn
Inbound - when est. on the inbound segment (judgment).
Teardrop course - 30° or less (on the maneuvering side).
On the non-maneuvering side and greater than 180 KTAS, correct with
20° intercept angle (minimum).
If the procedure course is intercepted outbound, maintain course for
the remainder of the leg, then turn toward the maneuvering side to reverse
The procedure turn prior to the FAF will NOT be flown when:
Cleared for a "straight-in" approach.
Vectored to the final
Approach is NoPT.
When conducting "timed" approaches.
When established in a published or assigned holding pattern,
subsequently cleared for the approach AND: the holding course and
procedure turn course are the same.
45/180 DEGREE MANEUVER (I/120)
An optional maneuver. Both the outbound track and inbound
course should be intercepted as soon as possible.
ENTRY: Slow to maneuvering airspeed (max. - 250 KIAS).
PROCEEDING OUTBOUND: Intercept & maintain the outbound track
ASAP. Adjust the outbound leg so as to remain within the distance noted on
the chart.(Normally, 1 minute, no-wind). To begin the reversal maneuver:
turn 45° away from the outbound track; fly wings level for 45 seconds,
then fly a 180° turn in the opposite direction from the initial turn to
intercept the course inbound.
At the IAF: when abeam or past the IAF and on a parallel or intercept
heading to the outbound track.
Past the IAF: when established on a segment of the IAP.
Both High and Low Altitude Approaches may have a "/" in the
approach name (e.g. VOR/DME, ILS/DME.) A slash (/) indicates that more
than one type of equipment may be required to execute the final approach.
Be aware that additional equipment may be required to execute the other
portions of the procedure. (I/95)
When the name of the approach is followed by a letter such as "VOR A" the approach is designed for
circling minimums only. (I/95)
NOTE: Some civil and foreign approaches may have
an "A in a triangle" or an "A in a triangle NA" in the remarks. The
"A in a triangle" doesn't apply to Air Force
pilots. The "A NA" (Alternate-Not Available) tells civilian and military pilots that the
approach cannot be used as an alternate because of lack of either weather
reporting or the capability to monitor the navaid. Do not specify an
airport as an alternate if the approach plate for the required runway
carries the "A NA" designator. Jeppesen indicates the alternate NA
in the airport diagram plate in the block designated "For Filing As An
ENTRY: same as holding procedures. (I/122)
When outbound abeam/wings level outbound.
Wings level inbound.
Passing the FAF. (If required) (I/103)
Outbound - if established in a holding pattern with a minimum holding
altitude, you may descend to that altitude when cleared for the approach.
Inbound - when est. on the inbound segment (I/122)
Teardrop course - 45° or less. (I/103)
When cleared for the approach enroute to the holding fix,
proceed to the holding fix, turn and proceed outbound for the applicable
time. If cleared for the approach after established in the holding
pattern (in lieu of procedure turn), and the aircraft is at an alt. from
which the approach can be safely executed, additional circuits are neither
necessary nor expected by ATC. (I/122) If you aren't sure ask ATC (T).
The holding pattern in lieu of procedure turn prior to the FAF will
not be flown when:
Cleared for a straight-in approach.
Vectored to the final
Approach is NoPT.
When conducting "timed" approaches, depart the FAF at the
assigned time & fly straight-in. (I/122)
ENTRY - when over the IAF, turn immediately in the shorter direction
to intercept the track. If heading (over the IAF) is within 90° of the
procedural course, you are not required to over-fly the IAF use
normal lead points. If not within 90°, & you need to maneuver
the a/c into a more favorable alignment, obtain clearance to maneuver from
TIMING - varies with each approach; in some cases not required (DME
At the IAF - when abeam or past the IAF and on a parallel or intercept
heading to the course.(Except for initial descents at the IAF, be
established in the appropriate segment of the approach prior to
descending to the next alt.)
Teardrop - descend from the turn alt. when est. on the inbound
segment. Where a teardrop turn is depicted, you may turn to the inbound
course at any time; however, do not exceed the published "remain within"
NOTE: An arc to radial altitude restriction applies only while
established on that segment of the IAP. Once a lead point is reached and a
turn to the next segment is begun, pilots may descend to the next alt.
When an altitude restriction is depicted at a fix defined as an
intersection of a radial and an arc, the restriction must be complied with
no later than the completion of the lead turn associated with that fix. If
the restriction is met during the lead turn, you may descend to the next
applicable altitude restriction.